I think this can be a confusing concept for beginner tatters. So I tried to simplify the concepts for you visually.
This example is tatted in the traditional way.
Reverse Work "RW" means to flip from top to bottom.
Turn Work "TW" means to turn like a page in a book...from right to left.
Notice how the chain turned directions. I use a lot of TW's in my patterns.
Here's a bonus picture showing a "floating ring". If Orange is Shuttle #1 and green is shuttle #2 (in lieu of ball thread), you can use shuttle #2 to throw off rings.